toxicity of ammonia
chlorine and chloramine
normal gill function
- Safe for
aquatic plants and animals
||1. Estimate the volume of water to be treated.
2. Add 10ml (1 capful) for each 20 gallons of water.
3. To remove high ammonia : add 3 capfuls of solution per
20 gallons of water.
Calculation of pond volume:
*Square/rectangular: L x W x D x 7.5 = volume in gallons
*Circular: R x R x 3.14 x D x 7.5 = volume in gallons L =
length W = width D = depth R= radius
||Tap water contains chlorine which destroys
micro-organisms and pathogenic bacteria. The average
concentration of chlorine in tap water is over 0.2 ppm.
Many water treatment plants add chlorine with ammonia to
form chloramine. Chloramine helps the disinfection of tap
water to last longer. Unfortunately, chlorine, chloramine
and ammonia are very toxic to aquatic species. These
substances can damage or prevent proper gill function,
and may even cause death. prevents harm to aquatic species by reducing
ammonia and removing chlorine and chloramine safely from
not hinder the biological and filtration system
and may remove dyes used for medication such as
potassium permanganate, methylene blue and
- One capful of removes
up to 1ppm ammonia, 2 ppm of chloramine and 3 ppm
- can be
used to remove ammonia caused by excretion of
aquatic animals, dead plants, and decayed foods.
- Do not use an ammonia test kit based on Nessler
reagents. It will show a false positive reading
for ammonia. Use ammonia test kit based on
salicylate reagents to test ammonia levels.